ENG101 Quize No 1 Fall 2019 Today

ENG101 Quize No 1 Fall 2019


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Reading and Dictionary

This lesson is in two parts. In the first part, you will learn about the:

  uses of a language dictionary
  how to use a dictionary

In the second part of the lesson, you will read an interesting story.


Definition of Dictionary

A dictionary is a book that not only lists and records the words of a language but it also tells you how speakers of the language spell, pronounce, define, explain and use the words of their language.

Reference Book - provides useful information. It is valuable only if you learn how to use it correctly and efficiently.

List of Dictionary Uses (9)


The following is a list of things that can be learned from a dictionary:

(i)                   Spelling
(ii)                 Pronunciation
iii)                Part of speech
iv)                  Origin of word
(v)                 Meaning/explanation
(vi)                Usage/restrictive lables
(vii)              Synonyms & antonyms
(viii)             Foreign words & phrases
ix) General information.

i)     Spelling


Many students find English spelling very confusing. So what do you do? Consult your dictionary. It will clarify your confusion by showing you the different spellings of the same word.

Look at the words catalogue and theatre. You must have noticed that the dictionary lists both BRE and AE/US spelling of the words. Both are correct.


Exercise (i) Spelling:

Use the dictionary to answer the following questions about spelling.
a)      What other possible spellings does your dictionary give for these words?

Centre            Color

b)      Does your dictionary say anything about the spelling ‗humor‘ and ‗rumor‘?

(ii)               Pronunciation

Students have problems in pronouncing English words. A dictionary will help you learn the pronunciation of any word but only if you are familiar with the symbols in which they are written. We will discuss this in greater detail in the next lesson.

All language dictionaries carry a pronunciation key/table. Be sure to read it.

(iii)         Part of speech

All dictionaries indicate the part of speech a word belongs to - whether the word is commonly used as a Noun, Pronoun, Verb (transitive, intransitive), Adjective, Adverb, Conjunction, or Preposition etc.

iv)     Origin of Words
Some dictionaries indicate the origin and derivation of a word before it became an English word.

(v)         Meaning/ Explanation / Definition of words

The most important information that a dictionary provides about a word is its meaning. Most of the words have many meanings or shades of meaning. Do not just read the first listed meaning of the word you are looking for. Go down the numbered list. Look for the meaning that best suits the context in which the word is used.

Also look up words above and below the word that you are looking for. You will find  that words are often closely related. It will help to extend your recognition of the word in other forms and contexts.

Exercise (v-a) Meaning:

Look up the words ‗fast‘ and ‗set‘ in a dictionary. Write the total number of different meanings of each word. Include all the numbered and lettered meanings for each part of speech.

Exercise (v-b):


Meaning/ Explanation / Definition of words.

Use  the  dictionary  to  find  the  specific  meanings  of  the  word  „play‟ in  each  of  the following:

1.  The boys like to play on the hard court.
2.  Amna will play the sitar in the concert.
3.  The play produced by the arts club was a success.
4.  It was a clever play that won the football game.
1.  The gardener played the hose on the flower beds.
2.  A ‗week without water can make one weak‘ is a play on words.

(vi)   Usage/Restrictive Labels


A dictionary uses different labels like Br (British), Am (American), fml (formal), infml (informal), col (colloquial), pl (plural), poetic (poetic), sl (slang).This information is important in writing.

A dictionary will tell you the usage of words and phrases, idioms / proverbs of the language. It will also tell you about the limitations of the use of the word. Special labels are used to show this. If a word is no longer in current use it will be labelled archaic (arch) or obsolete (obs). Other labels will tell you of the level of usage: whether the word has literary flavour (poetic) or is slang (sl), formal (fml) informal (infml).

Exercise ( vi-a )Usage Restrictive Labels:

Idioms / Two-word Verbs / Phrasal Verbs / Noun Phrase

Look up the underlined words in the dictionary and write their meanings.

1.     1.         Prof. Widdowson held forth for over an hour about the need for communication language teaching.
2.     2. I don‘t get how you found the answer.
3.     My roommate is pretty hard up these days.

Exercise (vi-b) Restrictive or Usage Labels:



a)         Look up the following words / phrases in the dictionary. Write whether its use is primarily slang, informal or colloquial.

Guys               Cool



Example:

Will it be O.K. if I meet you in the library about eight?
Label:      Colloquial

Meaning: All Right

(vii)            Synonyms and Antonyms:

Similar and opposite meanings of words are also given but not in all dictionaries.

(viii)          Foreign words and Phrases:

Dictionaries define / explain many common foreign words and phrases either with the main entries or in a special section at the back.

Exercise(viii)Foreign Words & Phrases:

Look up each of these foreign words o phrases. Write its English meaning. etcetera, e.g., et al., a prior, coup d‘état, per se.


ix)                General Information

This section varies from dictionary to dictionary. Names of important persons, places, countries, nationalities, are listed either in the alphabetical order of words or in special sections at the back. Some dictionaries may include rules for spelling, punctuation, list of common first names in English, systems of weights and measures, conversion tables, etc.

How to use a dictionary:

Learning what a dictionary contains and how it is used will save much of your time.

Step I: Know the correct order of the letters of the English alphabet.
·         all entries in dictionary are arranged in an alphabetical order.
·         words are arranged according to the 1st letter.
·         when the words begin with the same letter, they are arranged according to the 2nd letter.
·         if both the 1st and the 2nd letters are the same then the words are arranged according to the 3rd letter, & so on...

Step 2: Finding Words Quickly


A)   When looking for a word first thumb through pages quickly.

·         Look only at guide words
·         When you come to the guide word nearest the word you want then look down that page for the word.

Guide Words


B)   Look at top of any page in the dictionary. The words in heavy type/bold face are the GUIDE WORDS. They guide you to the word you are looking for.

-   The word on the top left are same as the first bold face word on that page.
-   Word on the top right of the page is the last bold face entry on that page.

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