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1: diachronic version:
Diachronic linguistics is one of the two predominant temporal dimensions of language take a look at recognized through a Swiss linguist Ferdinand de Saussure. Diachronic version offers with language alternate over time. Principal concerns of diachronic linguistics include: to describe and account for located changes specifically languages.

The time period diachronic consists of ‘dia’ that means ‘throughout’; and ‘chron’ that means ‘time’. Diachronic linguistics is the look at of language through unique intervals in history. It maps the shifts and fractures and mutations of languages over the centuries. In gross outline, it's far similar to evolutionary biology, which maps the shifts and ameliorations of rocks. For example, tracing the improvement of English from the Old English duration to the twentieth century is a diachronic examine.


2: Languages condition in USA (imp)
Over 500 languages are spoken through the U.S. Population. The maximum typically used language is English (specifically, American English), that is the de facto countrywide language of the United States. Since the 1965 Immigration Act, Spanish is the second maximum not unusual language within the country. The state authorities of Louisiana gives offerings and documents in French, as does New Mexico in Spanish. There are many languages indigenous to North America or to U.S. States or holdings in the Pacific region. Hawaiian, although having few native audio system, is an reliable language along side English of the kingdom of Hawaii. Alaska recognizes English and twenty local languages as professional.
American Community Survey 2016 of 5+ years shows following statistics:
English only – 237.8 million
• Spanish– 40.five million
• Chinese – three.four million
• Tagalog – 1.7 million
• Vietnamese – 1.five million

English is the number one language used for, legislation, regulations, government orders, treaties, federal courtroom rulings, and all other respectable pronouncements.
three: Relationship b/w language & society (5 marks) (imp)
Language and social interplay have a reciprocal dating. Language shapes social interactions and social interactions shape language. Anthropological linguistics appears at: Language in precise way of life and how it's miles affected. Sociolinguistics is the study of the connection between language and society and the way human beings use language in exclusive social situations. When we are saying language is a social-cultural-geographical phenomenon, what does it mean? We also want to reflect onconsideration on how does society affect language? It is in society that guy acquires and uses language. Kinds of troubles on this dating include communities which expand a preferred language, and the reactions of minority provides to this (as in Belgium, India, Pakistan or Wales); human beings should be educated to linguistic level where they can address the demands of a variety of social situations. Communication exists among nations or groups the usage of a exclusive language. Problems are as a result of linguistic alternate in reaction to social factors. The troubles are prompted or solved by bilingualism or multilingualism. Scope of sociolinguistics consists of the interplay of language and numerous sociologically definable variables inclusive of social magnificenceprecise social situation, fame and roles of speakers etc
four: why the concept of speech network rejected:
For only theoretical purposes, a few linguists have hypothesized the lifestyles of an


‘ideal’ speech network. This is truly what Chomsky (1965) proposes as ‘absolutely homogeneous speechcommunity’. However, this sort of speech network is a theoretical construct employed for a slim purpose. Mostly our speech communitiessomething they are, exist in a ‘real’ world. Consequently, we need an alternative view of speech network i.E. To have a look at language in society in place of necessitated with the aid of abstract linguistic theorizing. Using linguistic traits by myself to determine what's or isn't always a speech community has proved up to now to be quite impossible. Why? Because human beings do no longer always feel this sort of direct dating between linguistic traits A, B, C, and so on, and speech network X. What we may be sure of is that audio system do use linguistic characteristics to attain organization identification with, and organization differentiation from, other speakershowever they use other characteristics.The examples are: social, cultural, political and ethnic. Social classes of age, sex, ethnicity, social class, and situation may be without a doubt marked on the idea of speech, and that such categorization is fundamental to social organization. Perhaps the concept of ‘speech network’ is less useful than it might be. The question is ought to we go back to the idea of ‘organization’ as any set of individuals united for a common end? Should we keep on with the concept of ‘speech communities’ or ‘businesses’ or ‘communities of practice’? Each choice has its personal consequences.
five: bilinguality:
It must think about the definition of bilinguality that is, it ought to check a psychological kingdom and consequently account for its specificity. According to some other differentiation bilinguality is ‘psychomeasurement’, whereas bilingualism is the logical kingdom of the person who has get right of entry to to more than one linguistic code. There are reasons to trust that the bilingual is more than the sum of monolinguals and that his behaviour presentations a few unique traits.


6: Social class
Social magnificence is a central idea in sociolinguistic research, one of the small quantity of social variables by way of which speech communities are stratified. Trudgill(1974) asserts, “most contributors of our society have a few type of idea, intuitive or otherwise, of what social magnificence is,” and each professionals and laypeople agree. Social magnificence is often described in an advert hoc manner which could be very ironic because it's far a very critical variable in sociolinguistic studies. Despite the shortage of a consensus of definition of social magnificenceit's far a full-size time period in Sociolinguistics.

Social magnificence is a degree of popularity which is frequently based totally on occupation, income and wealth, however also may be measured in terms of aspirations and mobility.


Q1. Define Bilinguality (three Marks) (imp)
It should assess a psychological nation and therefore account for its specificity. According to some other differentiation bilinguality is ‘psychomeasurement’, while bilingualism is the logical state of the individual who has get admission to to multiple linguistic code.






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