Water logging and salinity: 

Water logging and salinity are serious threats to our lands. When the amount of water in the soil becomes higher than its holding capacity, then water starts to accumulate on the surface. This is called water logging. When the water from such a soil evaporates then the dissolved salts start getting deposited on the soil surface in the form of layer. This is called salinity. Due to defective planning of our irrigation system, seven million hectares of our land has been affected by salinity, whereas an estimated 200 acres are being subjected to water logging and salinity on daily basis. 

Desertification: About one third of the iand in Pakistan is covered with sandy soil which includes the coastal areas and inland deserts of Balochistan, Sindh, Punjab and NWFP. There are several reasons for the spread of deserts such as change in the direction of rivers, extensive agriculture and overgrazing etc.

Waterlogging and salinization are significant obstruction to the maintainability of flooded landsand vocations of the ranchers, particularly the smallholders, in the influenced regions of the IndusBasin. These issues are the aftereffect of a large number of variables, including leakage fromunlined earthen waterways framework, deficient arrangement of surface and subsurface drainage,poor water the board rehearses, insufficient water supplies and utilization of poor qualitygroundwater for water system. About 6.3 million ha are influenced by various levels and typesof saltiness, out of which almost half are under watered agribusiness. Since the mid 1960s,several endeavors have been made to improve the administration of salt-influenced and water-logged soils. These incorporate bringing down groundwater levels through profound tubewells, filtering ofsalts by abundance water system, use of substance alterations (for example gypsum, acids, organicmatter), and the utilization of natural and physical techniques. Nonetheless, regardless of tremendous contribute ments, the outcomes have all in all been disillusioning and the issues of waterlogging andsalinity persist.This paper audits sources, causes and degree of saltiness and waterlogging issues inthe Indus Basin. Measures taken to conquer these issues in the course of the most recent four decades arealso talked about. The outcomes uncover that the introduced waste frameworks were at first achievement ful in bringing down groundwater table and lessening saltiness in influenced territories. In any case, pooroperation and upkeep of these frameworks and arrangement of deficient offices for thedisposal of saline waste effluent brought about restricted generally speaking achievement. The paper suggeststhat to guarantee the maintainability of flooded farming in the Indus Basin, specialized andfinancial support is required and upgraded institutional courses of action including coordina-tion among various administrative and commonplace government organizations to determine between provincialwater allotment and water related issues is required.