Northern Areas Introduction

The land of snow-capped mountains and blue lakes. The biggest obstacle to peace in the Indian subcontinent is the Kashmir dispute. This conflict is a better year than its own. It is older than 98% of the population of India and Pakistan. (If a citizen had such an age, he would be living a retired life today). Although the best year in the history of the subcontinent is probably not so long. But no progress is expected.

Citizens of both countries are less familiar with the region and the context of the conflict.

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In this short series, only his background and introduction. It will only mention history and events. Who did what was right and wrong? It's not part of the series. (You will find great material on this from many other places).

So early warning: this is a very boring series.

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Terms are important. To understand Kashmir, let us first look at the word Kashmir. The word has often been used for the former Nawabi state of Jammu and Kashmir, which was established in 1846. This has caused confusion because the word has many meanings. When Pakistanis use this word, it often means Jammu and Kashmir. Many times Kashmir Valley and many times Azad Kashmir. When the Kashmir dispute is mentioned in Pakistan, the general concept of Kashmir Valley is taken. India has two more parts of this former state. Jammu and Ladakh And the make-up of the population in these areas is not the same. Muslims are in the overwhelming majority in Kashmir. In the minority in Jammu. There are Sunni Muslims in Kashmir. Almost all Muslims in Ladakh are Shiites.

When the word is used in India, it almost always means the Kashmir Valley. Jammu and Ladakh are considered separately.

When the "Kashmir dispute" is mentioned in international public relations, it is usually for Jammu and Kashmir. Because at one time it was a political unit.

When tourists use it for the Indian-administered Kashmir Valley. Because historically it has been a popular destination for tourists.

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Politically, the Kashmir Valley has had an ancient geopolitical status. The state of Jammu and Kashmir first formed a political unit in 1846. It has been called Kashmir for short because it was the most attractive and popular part of it. Today, when it comes to Kashmir, it refers to the state to be formed under the Dogra rule.


Before the independence of Pakistan, the state had three provinces. Jammu, Kashmir and border districts. (It's not that simple either, but details later). There were three districts of Kashmir province. Anantnag, Baramulla and Muzaffarabad. Muzaffarabad was not in the Kashmir Valley, but to its west.

When the war broke out in 1948, the Dogra state, established in 1846, had become five territories.

۔ Azad Kashmir

۔ Jammu

۔ Kashmir

۔ لداخ

۔ Gilgit-Baltistan (called Northern Areas until 2009)

Three of these areas were under Indian control while two areas were under Pakistan's control. At the United Nations, the issue was called the "India-Pakistan Question". In common parlance, this is called the Kashmir dispute.

(to be continued)